マインド(考え方)
公開日:2018.01.31

あなたに求められる3つの思考法(ロジカルシンキング、クリティカルシンキング、ラテラルシンキング)

私生活、ビジネス問わず、常に目標や課題、悩みがあるものです。課題や悩みにぶつかった時、逃げるか乗り越えるか、どちらかの選択肢があると思います。事柄にもよりますが、逃げればまたいつか同じ課題や悩みにぶつかることにはなるでしょう。結局、乗り越えるしかその先はありません。

事象の大きさに関わらず課題や悩みを解決しながら目標を達成していく訳ですが、そこには「考えること」が必要とされます。簡単に答えが見つかる時といつまで考えても答えが見つからない場合がありますが、同じ考え方を続けていても答えは見つかりません。

「考える力」は大人だけでなく、国の教育への取り組みでも子供に考える力をつける教育にも力を入れています。

2020年には、小中プログラミング教育が必修化となるようです。英語とともにプログラミングも当たり前にできなければいけない時代がやってきたと考えられるのですが、そのプログラミング必修化のテーマは「知識重視の教育から自分の問題を発見し自分で考える力を育む教育」とのこと。例えば、正しく設定したつもりがうまくいかなかった時に、なぜうまくいかなかったのかを自ら考え、答えを導き出す力を養うということです。プログラミング言語を覚えるというより、思考力をつけることを目的としています。

「考える」と一言で言いますが、目標を達成するためには3つの思考力が必要だと言われます。

 

ロジカルシンキング(論理的思考)

垂直思考方とも言われます。実際に出た結果や原因、数値などのデータから合理的に理解し、それに基づいて深堀して考え、一つの答えを出すということです。自分の予想や都合のよい考え方ではなく、実際の因果関係を正確に理解した上で考えなければ、正しい答えが見つかりません。目標を立てて、事実に基づき、最短距離で向かうことができる施行法だと言えます。物事を整理して考えることです。ビジネスをうまく進めるためには基本となる考え方です。

だからと言って、論理的にだけ考えればよいというものではありません。論理的な思考があるのをベースとして、世の中は論理的なことだけでは解決できないことが多くあります。そこには、心を持った相手(人)がいること、外部要因があることを忘れてはいけません。

 

クリティカルシンキング(批判的思考)

あえて批判的に考えてみる、客観的に考えてみるということです。批判的と言っても否定することではありません。ビジネスでも一方からしか見ていなければ、思いもしなかった問題が起こることになります。一度立ち止まって、本当に良いのかということを考えてみるということです。枠にはまった考えや思い込みにとらわれず、その事柄に疑問を持ってみることで解決策を導いていく思考力です。あえて批判的に考えてみることで、事前に起こる可能性がある問題点を洗い出し、問題を回避することもできます。

クリティカルポイントは3つの重要なことがあります。
1.本来の目的は正しいか疑問を持ち、本質を見極める
2.自分の意見には偏りがあるという前提から主観性を排除し、客観的に考えてみる
3.自分では当たり前と思うことでも常に疑問を持ってみる

クリティカルシンキングは、問題解決能力を高めることにつながります。

 

ラテラルシンキング(水平思考)

ロジカルシンキングは数学的なのに対して、ラテラルシンキングは右脳を使うような芸術的な能力を使います。論理だけでビジネスがうまくいくなら何も問題はありませんが、みんなが同じことをしても競合との争いが起きますし、その他いろいろな要因で計算通りにはいかないことが多くあります。ロジカルシンキングでは解決できないようなことをラテラルシンキングを使って解決できる場合があります。今までの考え方や枠にとらわれず、別の角度から自由な発想をして解決方法を導き出すという方法です。導き出す答えやアイデアは一つとは限らず複数あっても良いのです。発想力を鍛えることが重要です。新しいアイデアなどで、並みいる競合他社との差別化を図り、競合より一歩抜き出ることができるかもしれません。

 

まとめ

ロジカルシンキングは必ず必要ですが、AIが進み、論理的に解決できることは機械でもできると言えます。論理的に考える力をベースとして、客観的に見て考える力や発想力やアイデア力を鍛えることは社会で生きていく上で必要な力と言えるでしょう。基本ロジカルシンキングで考え、それに対してクリティカルシンキング、さらにラテラルシンキングをバランスよく使うことで、私生活においてもビジネスにおいても画期的で最適な解決方法を導き出せると言えます。あえて、3つの思考法を意識して考えてみましょう。

 

 

執筆者:才田 真未 (https://woman.xlab-online.com)

前職はウエディングプランナー。現在は、2人の育児をしながらリスティング広告、Facebook広告などのweb広告運用やセミナーを開催。多角的視点から考える広告運用やマーケティング情報をお届けします。

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