ビジネス用心理学
公開日:2016.10.26

希少性の原理

1枚1,200円のポテトチップス、あなたなら買いますか?

スウェーデンのビールメーカーが、1枚当たり1,200円以上するという高級ポテトチップスを販売し、即完売したとのこと。ポテトチップスといえば、スーパーでもコンビニでも安価で手に入るあのポテトチップスですが、松茸やトリュフが材料として入っており有名シェフが手がけたという、5枚入り1箱約6,000円!100箱限定商品が、即完売したようです。

大阪でもカルビーが「グランカルビー」という通常の3倍の厚みの高級ポテトチップスを百貨店で販売し、販売から2年以上たった現在も長蛇の列ができております。1箱500円(内容は普通と同じくらいの60g・・・)と高価格ですが、夕方には商品が売り切れていることもあり、販売当初は2時間以上並ばないと手に入らないというような状況でした。
また、現在は、通販や全国で催事なども行っているようですが、基本的には梅田の阪急百貨店でしか買うことができないということで、「ここにしかない。今しかない」という希少価値を売りにしていたようです。

他にも高級シリーズとして、グリコがポッキーの高級版「バトンドール」を販売、亀田製菓がハッピーターンの高級版「ハッピーターンズ」柿の種の「タネビッツ」などを販売しており、どちらも行列ができ、夕方には売り切れるといった現状が続いている商品もあります。

実際、私も販売当初は百貨店オープン30分前から行列に並んだこともあります・・・。バトンドールにしても、価格は、20本約500円なので通常スーバーで売っているポッキーの3倍の価格です。しかも、しっかりと味わって食べないと少量なので一瞬で食べ終わります。
しかし、特に珍しい間は、話題の商品を一度食べてみたいという感覚や手土産にしたら喜ばれる、話題作りになるなどもあり、並んでも手に入れたいと思うもの。

ここには、様々なマーケティング戦略が隠されていますね。

 

希少価値

「ここしかない、今しかない」という希少価値を売りにしています。行列に並ばないと手に入らない、販売場所を限定し、販売数量も限定することで、さらに希少価値を高めています。非売品なども同じことが言えますが、人はなかなか手に入らないものを欲しくなる心理を利用したもの。

 

販売場所

コンビニやスーパーで、同じように高額商品を並べても高いと感じ、売れないでしょう。しかし、百貨店には基本的に高額の商品が並んでいます。1箱500円という値段は、百貨店に並んでいる他の商品よりも安いと感じられるでしょう。飲食店などにも言えますが、お店を出す場所、売る場所で、イメージも変わり、ターゲットも変わってきます。また行列は、人通りが多く、百貨店の外から並んでいることも話題性を呼ぶ一つの要因かもしれません。行列ができているだけで、話題になりますし、ついその先に何があるか知りたくなるものです。

 

常識にとらわれない

ポテトチップス、ポッキー、ハッピーターンは、コンビニやスーパーで売っているものという常識を打ち破ること。同じ商品でも少し切り口を変えることで、全く別の商品が出来上がります。常識にとらわれず、新しい発想を取り入れることで、差別化を図り、価格競争からも抜け出せるかもしれません。

 

ターゲットを変える

どの商品も、基本的にターゲットは子供のおやつとして、日常に食べられるものという位置付け。しかし、グランカルビーなどの高級商品は、大人向けに作られたものであり、手土産や自分へのささやかなご褒美にと購入するユーザーをターゲットとしています。

 

まとめ買いを誘発する

行列に並ばないと購入できないこともあり、せっかく並んだのならと、まとめ買いをするユーザーがほとんどです。いろいろな味の商品が並んでおり、どれも試したくなるのも狙いですね。1箱500円としても10箱購入すれば5,000円、さらにセット販売することで単価アップすることができます。

 

あなたの扱っている商品やサービスは、どこで、どのように販売しているでしょうか?グランカルビー、バトンドール、ハッピーターンズ、などどれも今までに顧客に支持されてきた商品ではありますが、もともとのイメージを高級化すると戦略での成功事例です。あなたのビジネスも切り口を変えたり、希少価値を与えることで、競合との差別化を図り、新たなビジネスの展開があるかもしれません。

執筆者:才田 真未 (https://woman.xlab-online.com)

前職はウエディングプランナー。現在は、2人の育児をしながらリスティング広告、Facebook広告などのweb広告運用やセミナーを開催。多角的視点から考える広告運用やマーケティング情報をお届けします。

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